San Diego State University

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Fred Kolkhorst

ENS Director

Phone: (619) 594-1924
Office: ENS 351


  • Ph.D., 1990, University of Missouri-Columbia, Exercise Physiology
  • M.Ed., 1980, University of Missouri-Columbia, Health Education
  • B.S., 1976, University of Missouri-Columbia, Health and Physical Education

Research Areas

Our research is currently focused on oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Oxygen uptake at exercise onset closely reflects oxygen use by mitochondria, thus the study of VO2 kinetics can be used as a noninvasive means to observe how well mitochondria are functioning during exercise.

Our labs have also been involved in several other unrelated, but interesting studies. We are working with a group of emergency medicine physicians from UCSD to study the physiological effects of various types of restraints used by law enforcement. There are numerous reports of sudden death after suspects have been restrained or incarcerated. To this point, we have published three papers regarding ventilatory responses from hogtying and from the effects of TASER™ exposure.


(student authors in boldface)

  • Buono, M.J., S. Avila, L. Garnero, L. Fader, and F.W. Kolkhorst. The effect of heat acclimation on maximal urine osmolality in humans. Journal of Thermal Biology 36:157-159, 2011.
  •  Cannon, D.T., A.C. White, M.F. Andriano, F.W. Kolkhorst, and H.B. Rossiter.  Skeletal muscle fatigue precedes the slow component of oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise in humans Journal of Physiology 589(Pt 3): 727-739, 2011
  • Vilke, G.M., C. Sloane, E.M. Castillo, F.W. Kolkhorst, T.S. Neuman, and T.C. Chan. Evaluation of the ventilatory effects of a restraint chair on human subjects. Journal of Emergency Medicine 40(60): 714-718, 2011.
  • Scott, R.A., R. Irving, L. Irwin, E. Morrison, V. Charlton, K. Austin, D. Tladi, M. Deason, S.A. Headley, F.W. Kolkhorst, N. Yang, K. North, Y.P. Pitsiladis. ACTN3 and ACE genotypes in elite Jamaican and US sprinters. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 42(1): 107-12, 2010.
  • Bresciani, M.J., M. Oakleaf, K. Duncan, J. Barlow, F.W. Kolkhorst, and J. Hickmott.  Examining inter-rater reliability for a research methodology rubric. Journal on Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation 14(13A):1-7, 2009.
  • Buono, M.J., T.R. Numan, R.M Claros, S.K. Brodine, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Is active sweating during heat acclimation required for improvements in peripheral sweat gland function?   American Journal of Physiology: Regulative, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 297(4): R1082-1085, 2009.
  • Vilke G.M., C.M. Sloane, A. Suffecool, F.W. Kolkhorst, T.S. Newman, E.M. Castilo, and T.C. Chan. Physiologic effects of the TASER after exercise. Academic Academy of Emergency Medicine 16(8): 704-710, 2009.
  • Marshall, S.J., S.S. Levy, C. Tudor-Locke, K.M Wooten, F.W. Kolkhorst, M. Ji, C. Macera, and B.A. Ainsworth. Translating CDC/ACSM physical activity recommendations into pedometer-based step indices. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 36(5): 410-415, 2009.
  • Cannon, D.T., F.W. Kolkhorst, and M.J. Buono. On the determination of ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point via respiratory frequency. International Journal of Sports Medicine 30(3): 157-162, 2009.
  • Elsner, K.L. and F.W. Kolkhorst. Metabolic demands of simulated firefighter tasks. Ergonomics 51(9): 1418-1425, 2008.
  • Kunert, K., M.L. King, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Perceptions of fatigue and sleep quality in nurses. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 45(8): 30-37, 2007.
  • Vilke, G.M., C. Sloane, K.D. Bouton, F.W. Kolkhorst, S. Levine, T.S. Neuman, E.M. Castillo, T.C. Chan. Physiological effects of the TASER X-26 on human subjects. Annals of Emergency Medicine 50(5): 569-575, 2007.
  • Buono M.J., K.D. Ball, F.W. Kolkhorst. Effect of active heat acclimation on the sweat sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationship in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 103(3): 990-994, 2007.
  • Cannon, D.T., F.W. Kolkhorst, and D.J. Cipriani. Effect of pedaling technique on cycling efficiency. European Journal of Applied Physiology 99(6): 659-664, 2007.
  • Michalewicz, B.A., T.C. Chan, G.M. Vilke, S.S. Levy, T.S. Neuman, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Ventilatory and metabolic demands during aggressive physical restraint in healthy adults. Journal of Forensics Sciences 52(1): 171-175, 2007.
  • Cannon, D.T., F.W. Kolkhorst, and D.J. Cipriani. Electromyographic data do not support a progressive recruitment of muscle fibers during exercise exhibiting a VO2 slow component. Journal of Physiological Anthropology 99(6): 659-664, 2007.
  • Lorenz, K.A., C. Hom, J. Lopez, R.S. Pozos, M.J. Buono, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Effects of hypoxia on the onset of muscle deoxygenation and the lactate threshold. Journal of Physiological Sciences 56(4): 321-323, 2006.
  • Buono, M.J., P.W. Miller, C. Hom, R.S. Pozos, F.W. Kolkhorst. Skin blood flow affects in vivo near-infrared spectroscopy measurements in human skeletal muscle. Japanese Journal of Physiology 55(4): 241-244, 2006.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., R.S. Rezende, S.S. Levy, and M.J. Buono. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on VO2 kinetics during heavy exercise. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise 36(11):1895-1899, 2004.
  • DiPasquale, D.M., M.J. Buono, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Effect of skin temperature on cholinergic sensitivity to the human eccrine sweat gland. Japanese Journal of Physiology, 53(6):427-430, 2003.
  • Fox, C.W., C. Hall, E. Hall, F. Kolkhorst, and W. Lockette. Cardiovascular baroreceptors mediate susceptibility to hypothermia in man. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 74(2):132-1137, 2003.
  • DiPasquale, D.M., C.L. Mason, P. Patterson, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Independent and critical thinking in an inquiry-based laboratory course. Journal of College Science Teaching 32(6):388-393, 2003.
  • DiPasquale, D.M., F.W. Kolkhorst, J.F. Nichols, and M.J. Buono. Effect of acute altitude exposure on peripheral sweat rate High Altitude Medicine and Biology 3(3):289-292, 2002.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., D.M. DiPasquale, and M.J. Buono. Effect of tap-water iontophoresis on sweat gland recruitment, skin temperature, and skin blood flow. Journal of Dermatological Science 28(2):97-101, 2002.
  • Francis, P.R., F.W. Kolkhorst, M. Pennucci, R.S. Pozso, and M.J. Buono. An electromyographic approach to the evaluation of abdominal exercises. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal 5(4):8-14, 2001.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., C.L. Mason, D.M. DiPasquale, P. Patterson, and M.J. Buono. An inquiry-based learning model for an exercise physiology laboratory course. Advances in Physiology Education 25(2):45-50, 2001.
  • Buono, M.J. and F.W. Kolkhorst. Estimating ATP resynthesis during a marathon run: a method to introduce metabolism. Advances in Physiology Education 25(2):70-71, 2001.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., C.L. Broshears, M.K. Hoeger, and C.L. Thurman. Effect of a sport food bar on lipolysis and fat oxidation during prolonged exercise. Sports Medicine, Training, and Rehabilitation 9(1):71-78, 1999.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., J.N. MacTaggart, and M.R. Hansen. Effects of a sports food bar on fat utilization and exercise duration. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 23(3):271-278, 1998.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., J.J. Smaldino, S.C. Bukatz-Wolf, L.R. Battani, B.L. Plakke, S. Huddleston, and L.D. Hensley. Influence of physical fitness on susceptibility to noise-induced temporary threshold shift in females. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise 30(2):289-293, 1998.
  • Terrillion, K.A., F.W. Kolkhorst, F.A. Dolgener, and S.A. Joslyn. The effect of creatine supplementation on two 700-m maximal running bouts. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 7(2):138-143, 1997.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., S.W. Mittelstadt, and F.A. Dolgener. Perceived exertion and blood lactate concentration during graded treadmill running. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 72(3):272-277, 1996.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., T.D. Toepfer, and F.A. Dolgener. Expired air temperature during steady-state running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27(12):1621-1625, 1995.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W., B.R. Londeree, and T.R. Thomas. Effects of consecutive exercise days of jogging or cycling on the resting metabolic rate and nitrogen balance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 35(4):343-350, 1994.
  • Dolgener, F.A., F.W. Kolkhorst, and D.A. Whitsett. Long slow distance training at two frequencies and volumes in novice marathoners. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 65(4):339-346, 1994.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W. and F.A. Dolgener. Nonexercise model fails to predict aerobic capacity in college students with high VO2max. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 65(1):78-83, 1994.
  • Thomas, T.R., B.R. Londeree, D.A. Lawson, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Resting metabolic rate before exercise vs a control day. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59(1):28-31, 1994.
  • Kolkhorst, F.W. Estimation of percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing in high schools. Iowa Science Teachers Journal 30(2):2-7, 1993.
  • Thomas, T.R., F.W. Kolkhorst, B.R. Londeree, M. Granryd-Melkerson, S.T. Linsenbardt, and M. Rutherford. Preparatory postural positions and body composition measurement by bioelectrical impedance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 61(2):206-209, 1990.
  • Thomas, T.R., T.B. Jordan, and F.W. Kolkhorst. Variable resistance and isotonic strength training programs in young adults. Missouri Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 1988.